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Types of Asbestos | Amhibole | Serpentine | National Asbestos Helpline

What is asbestos?

Asbestos is a naturally occurring fibrous material which has been regularly used from the end of the 19th century until the late 1990s in both manufacturing and construction.

Thanks to its versatile properties, such as its fire-resistance and the fact that it is the only known mineral that can be woven into a thread, it had been known as the ‘magic-mineral’.

Asbestos has been found to be a hazardous substance and needs to be handled with care. When asbestos is disturbed it releases fibres as well as a visible dust which can present serious health risks when breathed in. It can be fatal.

Types of asbestos

There are 6 mineral types that are defined by the Environmental Protection Agency as ‘asbestos’, and these are split into 2 main classes of asbestos.

Serpentine – Serpentine class fibres are curly in appearance. There is only one member in this class of asbestos, called Chrysotile.

  • Chrysotile asbestos is obtained from serpentinite rocks, which are found commonly throughout the world. Chrysotile appears under the microscope as a white fibre. This type of asbestos has been used more than any other, as it is more flexible than any of the Amphibole class asbestos and can be spun and woven into a fabric. Its most common use has been in corrugated asbestos cement roof sheets typically used for outbuildings, warehouses and garages. It may also be found in sheets or panels used for ceilings and sometimes for walls and floors. Chrysotile has been a component in joint compounds and some wall plaster. Numerous other items have been made containing chrysotile, including brake linings, fire barriers in fuse boxes, pipe insulation, floor tiles, and gaskets for high temperature equipment.

Amphibole – Amphibole class fibres are needle-like in form. The remaining 5 types of asbestos fall into this category, including Crocidolite, Amosite, Tremosite, Anthophyllite and Actinolite.

  • Crocidolite asbestos is the fibrous form of the amphibole riebeckite. Crocidolite is seen under the microscope as a blue fibre. Often referred to as blue asbestos, it is considered the most hazardous. In 1964, Dr Christopher Wagner discovered an association between blue asbestos and the asbestos related cancer mesothelioma. Unbelievably, Bolivian-mined crocidolite was used in Kent Micronite cigarette filters in the 1950s. Blue asbestos was also formerly used in early gas masks.
  • Amosite asbestos, often referred to as brown asbestos, is seen under a microscope as a grey-white fibre. It is found most frequently in materials used as fire retardants in thermal insulation products, asbestos insulation and ceiling tiles.
  • Tremolite, Anthophyllite and Actinolite asbestos are used less commonly industrially, but can still be found in a variety of construction and insulation materials, and have even been reported to be found in a number of consumer products in the past.

What was asbestos used for?

Asbestos was widely used in industry and construction from the mid-19th century, and increased in use at the start of the 20th century right through to the 1980s and 1990s.

Due to its versatility, asbestos had many application including fire-proof coatings, pipe insulation, concrete and building materials and various other uses, both industrial and commercial.

Trades where people were most at risk of being exposed to asbestos include:

  • Shipbuilders

  • Pipefitters

  • Insulatiob workers

  • Labourers

  • Demolition and wrecking crews

  • Carpenters

  • Plasterers

  • Tile setters

  • Roofers

Asbestos dust could spread throughout jobsites easily and expose people who weren’t even handling asbestos directly.

Where can I find asbestos?

Asbestos can be found in any industrial or residential building built or refurbished before the year 2000.

You can find out more about where asbestos can be found in industrial and residential properties on the Health & Safety Executive Website.

I have been diagnosed with an asbestos disease. What should I do?

If you are diagnosed with an asbestos-related disease, such as mesotheliome, diffuse pleural thickening, asbestosis or asbestos-related lung cancer, it is important for you to get in touch with the right people for advice and support.

At the National Asbestos Helpline it is our mission to help, support and guide you through the medical and legal process. The National Asbestos Helpline is a free service provided by Alderstone Solicitors, which has a team of specialist, experienced and dedicated asbestos lawyers. In order to support those people diagnosed with an asbestos-related disease with a full service – from benefits to compensation – the National Asbestos Helpline relies on Alderstone Solicitors to provide the legal expertise required to help asbestos sufferers.

We can also put you in contact with charities and organisations that can provide information and assistance on the medical aspect of your condition, as well as charities and private organisations that can help in practical ways, for example providing care and assistance, including services provided by your local councils social services department.

You can get in touch by calling us on Freephone 0800 043 6635 or filling in our contact form below, and we will call you back.

With us, it’s personal

The National Asbestos Helpline was set up to help asbestos related disease sufferers and their families.

With our knowledgeable, professional and compassionate approach, we help and support thousands of people across the UK to access financial, emotional and practical support and, where appropriate, legal representation from specialist asbestos compensation claims solicitors.

If you, a family member or a friend has been diagnosed with Mesothelioma, Pleural Thickening, Asbestosis, Asbestos Lung Cancer or Pleural Plaques, we are here to help.